RX1 Microfluidics-based 3D Bioprinter

The RX1 is a microfluidics-based 3D bioprinter which allows precise control, enabling microscale resolution at high speed. We can directly print cell-laden hollow perfusable fibres for modeling tubular tissues, such as blood vessels. In addition to a hollow centre, we can also print fibres with multiple concentric layers for cell encapsulation for applications such as immunoprotection. With coaxial flow focusing, the bioink is crosslinked in the microfluidic printhead and not pre- crosslinked as with extrusion. This enables printing with very low viscosity bioinks (down to ~1 mPas) to produce soft printed structures that can enable better cell viability, proliferation and function, especially for soft tissues. However, we are not limited to print only low viscosity materials but can print work with medium range viscosities as well (up to 1500 mPas).

The RX1 also allows for straightforward multicellular and multimaterial printing with up to four different inks with a single printhead (QUAD printhead). This makes it possible to print tissues that are more physiologically relevant. The microfluidic technology also enables seamless switching between the different bioinks so we can create patterns such as gradients and interfaces within the printed fibres and 3D structures.

Technical Specifications

  • Axis resolution (x, y, z) of 0.5 μm ( print resolution is printhead- and material-dependent)
  • Modular and disposable microfluidic printheads in sterile packaging
  • Printing speed of 0.1 – 100 mm/s
  • 6 independent material pressure control channels and 6 independent valve control lines
  • Pressure between 0 – 500 mbar (± 2 mbar) for each channel
  • On-board camera for printhead monitoring and diagnostics, integrated vacuum pump, insulated material reservoir for passive temperature control, HEPA filtered air intake, integrated air drier, integrated pump
  • Aspect Studio Software

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The Team

We are a group of experts from different disciplines working together to tackle one of the biggest challenges of modern times: the characterization and recreation of tissue microenvironments.


We seek answers to questions related to tissue homeostasis and disease. New technologies resulting from our work will facilitate diagnosis and treatment of many chronic diseases.


Our state-of-the-art microscopy and analytical techniques allow us to analyze the complex biochemical and biophysical processes that occur in tissue microenvironments.


By providing research opportunities and developing educational programs for the larger community, we are helping Ontario and, indeed, all of Canada build expertise in emerging but increasingly important areas of research, including tissue engineering and imaging.